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Covid-19 Prevention: Unique Google Doodle Reminder

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As the new coronavirus continues growing all around the world, Google reminding people to wear masks and keep their social distance in their own unique Doodle.

They have a Google logo on their home page that shows the role of each letter and follows guidelines from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And if you click on the animation, then it will take you to Google’s COVID-19 prevention page.

“Wear a mask. Save lives: Help Stop Coronavirus”

According to worldometer website, August 06, global coronavirus cases 18,971,698, nearly 19 million, and deaths 711116.

 

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Science

Why are there no more major theories such as relativity? Has basic research stalled?

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Why isn’t there a major theory like relativity and quantum science that emerged at the beginning of the last century?

Is basic research well developed, or is it stuck in a development bottleneck? If the development is not complete, what causes this slowdown?

This is indeed a good question, and it is also a question that the author has been thinking about for the past five years. Taking this opportunity, I might as well talk about my personal views.

Has the development of basic theory stalled?

This is a topic that is often mentioned but often misunderstood. In fact, this issue is very complicated.

Based on the basic theory of the philosophy of science, the author believes that basic research represented by physics is still in development and progress, but these progress are not subversive progress, but continuous progress.

The overall development stage of physics is still in the period of conventional science. In other words, the existing physics paradigm is still in the mature stage of life, and it has not encountered too many abnormalities and crises. Its mission at this stage is to use the existing paradigm. To solve more problems instead of subverting the old paradigm, that era has not yet arrived.

Combing the clues of the history of science, we can clearly find that humans have waited 218 years from the establishment of the Newtonian paradigm (1687) to the establishment of the Einstein paradigm (1905). During this period, countless scientists worked under the Newtonian paradigm and achieved a lot. Outstanding achievement, but no one’s prestige can surpass Newton, Newtonian paradigm only really encountered challenges at the end of the 19th century (two dark clouds appeared in the physics sky).

The modern physics paradigm has only been more than 100 years from its establishment to the present, and it is far from the withering period of theoretical life. Using this paradigm, mankind has made countless great achievements in the past century. So far, this paradigm has not been met. To weighty anomalies and crises.

Therefore, the progress of modern physics still has a lot of room for development, and it has not reached the so-called bottleneck stage.

 

So what makes the development of physical theory seem to be slowing down? The author believes that there are two reasons for this cognitive illusion:

First, after each scientific revolution, the scientific research space brought about by the new paradigm expands exponentially, just like the situation faced by astronomy after expanding from the solar system to the Milky Way. Two evidences of the expansion of the research field are:

1. The exponential growth of results. According to the American scientometrician Price (Derek John de SollaPrice, 1922-1983), in modern times, the scientific and technological literature has grown exponentially (the growth rate will become smaller in the later period).

If we link the substantial increase in the number of documents with the expansion of academic space, we can put forward a hypothesis: that is, after each scientific revolution, the growth of its academic space also increases exponentially.

If this hypothesis is true, then the range of academic space released after the physics revolution in the early 20th century has grown exponentially compared to the range of academic space in the era of the Newtonian Revolution. We might as well take a look at the range of physics research in the early 20th century Compared to today, it is very narrow. At that time, physics research was basically concentrated in a few fields such as nuclear physics and statistical thermodynamics.

According to the latest “National Standard Discipline Classification” (GB/T 13745-2008), physics, as a first-level discipline, consists of 16 second-level disciplines and 108 third-level disciplines.

In this sense, the current research space of physics has expanded dozens of times compared with 100 years ago. In other words, there are still many fields in need of deep cultivation under the contemporary physics paradigm, and the world of physics theory is far from nothing. It can be done even at the stage where Nanshan can be released. Since these studies are all work within the existing paradigm, it is difficult to produce subversive theories.

2. The exponential growth of computing power. According to Moore’s Law, every 12-18 months, the processing performance of the computer doubles while the price remains the same.

In short, the current computing power of human beings doubles every two years. Even so, there are still many scientific problems that need to be solved. This also indirectly proves that the research space of physics is extremely huge. With the support of such powerful computing power, it is still The countless work that has not yet been carried out is proof.

 

Second, the advantage of the increase in the number of scientists has been diverted by the huge research space, and the possibility of major achievements has not increased significantly.

The number of modern physicists is more than the total number of all physicists since Newton to the mid-20th century. Why have so many people still failed to achieve a revolutionary and major theoretical breakthrough?

It is not that modern physicists are not clever, but because the field of modern physics presents a high degree of professional subdivision, which has led to a large number of physicists being diverted by many subdivided research fields, which led to the dilution of research capabilities and strength.

These subdivided fields are almost entirely new fields, which are still under the paradigm of modern physics and started relatively late. As a result, the research has not really touched the boundaries of the new paradigm, just like a sailor sailing on the vast sea. Without seeing the land, we began to wonder if we were still moving forward. In the same way, we intuitively feel that the current progress of physics has slowed down, but in fact it is still progressing rapidly. The slowdown is just a mistake caused by human cognitive illusions. The verdict is only the result.

Regarding the issue of basic research and talent gathering, people often take a famous photo to illustrate, that is, the group photo of the fifth Solvay Conference in October 1927. The photo includes Einstein, Madame Curie, Planck, Dozens of great physicists, including Bohr, Born, and Schrödinger, gathered. Why were there so many great scientific figures in that period, but they are rare today?

This is a typical tense misplacement problem.

The 1920s of the last century was the period when the modern physics revolution established a new paradigm. In the early days of the establishment of the new paradigm, the entire physics space was full of uncultivated academic wasteland under the searchlight of the new paradigm. There were many opportunities and historical paradoxes. The point is that at exactly that time, these smartest brains all turned their attention to this uncultivated land, and the fields were highly convergent, and there was no intellectual diversion phenomenon. As a result, a high degree of focus on research ability and wisdom was formed, which produced many Fruitful results.

In the revolutionary period, heroes would naturally be used to annotate that era, while in peacetime heroes would be presented in another way. At that time, there were Einstein and Schrödinger, and in our era, there were Bill Gates, Jobs, and Musk. Can you say that these contemporary people are not heroes?

A consensus formed by the whole society in recent years is to strengthen basic research. So what is the use of basic research?

Regardless of the linear model of basic research by US policy expert Bush, that is, basic research promotes technological development and then brings about the linear knowledge transformation chain of industrial revitalization, basic research provides basic norms and standards for all scientific and technological activities. Cognitive baseline. Let us take physics as an example.

Physics has always been the most fully developed and mature subject in the scientific landscape, and it is also the field where human intelligence is most prominent.

The achievements of physics have set an industry model for all scientific research, and the best knowledge sample (the highest potential energy) of the achievements of human wisdom.

The level of development of physics represents a country’s cognitive height in the field of natural sciences, and its development status directly determines the position of the country’s cognitive shortcomings.

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Business

Iron ore giant Vale has started divesting its coal business after announcing the carbon-neutral plan

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On January 20, the global iron ore giant Vale of Brazil announced that the company and Mitsui & Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Mitsui”) signed an agreement of intent on the same day. According to the agreement, the two parties will orderly promote Mitsui’s Moatize coal mine and the Nacala logistics corridor withdrew.

It is worth noting that this is also the first step Vale has taken to spin off its coal business.

The agreement determined the main terms for Vale to acquire Mitsui’s 15% stake in Moatize Coal Mine, 50% of its stake in the Nacala Logistics Corridor, and all other minority credit bonds. According to the intentional agreement, Vale will acquire Mitsui’s shares in the Moatize Coal Mine and the Nacala Logistics Corridor at a price of US$1.00 per share.

In the past 15 years, Vale has cooperated with the governments of Mozambique and Malawi to mine the Moatize coal mine and develop the 912-kilometer-long Nacala logistics corridor to serve coal transportation.

The goal of both parties is to complete the acquisition in 2021, and the specific completion time depends on the determination of the final agreement and the realization of the prerequisites for the acquisition. After the transaction is completed, Vale will merge the Nacala logistics corridor entity and all its assets and liabilities, including the Nacala financing project, which has an outstanding balance of approximately US$2.5 billion.

Vale said that after acquiring Mitsui’s shares and simplifying the governance structure and asset management process, Vale will start the divestiture of its coal business. By then, Vale will maintain the operations of the Moatize Coal Mine and the Nacala logistics corridor. , Looking for third parties interested in these assets.

Vale stated that it will continue to support the project to reach production capacity while it is diligently looking for investors in the coal business. It said that the two ongoing initiatives at the Moatize Coal Mine will bring sustainable results, including a new mining plan and a new operating strategy for the coal processing plant. The new mining plan calls for prioritizing the mining of ore bodies with better quality and higher stripping ratios in order to improve the quality of the product portfolio while reducing costs.

According to reports, the two existing concentrators at Moatize Coal Mine will restart operations and adopt a new process that has been implemented since November 2020. After the full implementation of the new process, Vale expects that the concentrator will continue to reach production, and its production and operation rates in the second half of 2021 and 2022 are expected to reach 15 million tons/year and 18 million tons/year respectively.

Vale emphasized that as the first step for Vale to divest its coal business, the signing of this intentional agreement is in line with the company’s capital allocation principles and the goal of simplifying its product portfolio while strengthening its commitment to the Paris Agreement.

It is worth mentioning that previously, on May 12, 2020, Vale announced that it would invest at least US$2 billion to achieve a direct and indirect absolute emission reduction of 33% by the end of 2030. Vale also plans to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 through this plan.

Headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Vale has operations on five continents and is the world’s largest producer of iron ore and pellets and the largest producer of nickel metal. Vale operates a large-scale logistics system in Brazil and other parts of the world, including railways, shipping terminals, and ports, and also has a logistics center to support the global distribution of iron ore.

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Business

California Disney refunds annual card users, and Paris Disney’s re-opening date is delayed by 48 days

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Recently, according to information released by the Disney Company, Ken Potrock, President of Disneyland Resort (California Disney Resort), said in a statement that due to the ongoing uncertainty of the new coronavirus epidemic and the false news of the reopening of the California Disney Resort, Appropriate refunds will be made for eligible California Disney Resort annual card users, and the current (annual card) plan will be canceled.

It can be seen that due to the impact of the US epidemic, the California Disney Resort has been unable to reopen for a long time. Prior to this, California Disneyland has been “working hard” for the reopening.

On October 21st last year, Disneyland in California announced through the Disney Company: “We have proven that we can responsibly reopen under the science-based health and safety measures that are strictly enforced in theme parks around the world. However. , California continues to ignore this fact and instead requires the state government to know the guidelines that do not work. This makes the standards we meet very different from those of other reopened businesses and state-run facilities. We hope that, together with the union, Let people return to work, but these state government guidelines will keep us closed for the foreseeable future, forcing thousands of people to lose their jobs, cause small family businesses to inevitably close down, and cause damage to Southern California communities Irreparable destruction.”

But in the comments on the news on Twitter, most people believed that under the current conditions, the park should not be reopened.

Up to now, of the six Disney parks in the world, only Shanghai Disneyland, Tokyo Disneyland, and Orlando Disneyland in the United States are open. In addition to Disneyland in California, Hong Kong Disneyland and Disneyland Paris are also closed.

On December 1, 2020, Hong Kong Disneyland Resort announced that in response to the government’s request and in line with the current epidemic prevention measures taken by Hong Kong, Hong Kong Disneyland will be temporarily closed from December 2. Hong Kong Disneyland Resort will maintain close contact with the Hong Kong government and health authorities and will announce the reopening date depending on the situation. This is the third time Hong Kong Disneyland has closed the park since the outbreak of the new coronavirus in 2020.

In addition, Disneyland Paris has also been closed twice.

On October 29, 2020, Disneyland Paris has closed again after reopening on July 15. According to news from the official website of Disneyland Paris, in order to celebrate the Christmas holiday, Disneyland Paris will accept reservations from December 19, 2020, to January 3, 2021, and hopes to open it according to the prevailing situation and government guidance. From January 4th to February 12th, Disneyland Paris will be closed.

But for now, Disney Paris may not be able to reopen as scheduled on February 13.

On January 18th, local time in France, the updated message of Disneyland Paris said: “If conditions permit, we will reopen Disneyland Paris on April 2, 2021, and accept reservations from that date.”

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